After opening the aortic valve, blood from the heart can flow to the aorta, the largest artery of our body and then blood flows to the rest of the body through the arteries. Sometimes, a closing of the aortic valve allows blood from flowing to return into the heart. This condition can be treated with aortic valve replacement surgery.
Reason for the replacement of an aortic valve
There are mainly two reasons for which the replacement of the aortic valve is made by the surgeon. These reasons are given below.
- When the aortic valve becomes narrowed, it is called aortic stenosis. At this condition, blood flow from the heart gets obstructed due to narrow opening of the valve.
- Due to the leakage of the aortic valve, that is called aortic regurgitation, blood flow returns into the heart.
Over the time the problems may be worse and severe that leads to the problems which are life-threatening, like heart failure or stroke. This problem will not be cured by following any medicinal treatment. Always the replacement of the aortic valve is recommended to solve this problem.
There are mainly four different types of bypasssurgery and they are- single bypass or bypass surgery done on patients who have only one artery blocked; double bypass for patients, who have two arteries blocked; triple bypass surgery forpatients who have three arteries blocked; and quadruple bypass surgeries for people who have four arteries blocked. The more number of arteries blocked means the more chances of getting sick and having a cardiac arrest. So, when situations like this occurs, then don’t wait for anything, if necessary take more than one opinions from several doctors, but do get your operation done if you want to live. The surgery also becomes more complicated in case there are more than one arteries blocked so take the help of only the best surgeons when this occurs. There are several doctors in India who are really good cardiologists. So, take the help of them when you know surgery is the only way out of this heart disorder. Even the cost of bypass surgery in India is lower than that of other countries so you can opt for it in India without even thinking twice. The nice and friendly doctors will surely give you the best facility and will make you healthy once again.
The aortic valve gets affected mainly because of aortic stenosis or aortic insufficiency. Generally open-heart surgery is performed for this kind of surgery. However, recent improvement in technology have improved the conditions of the aortic valve replacement surgery and now another more improved technique is performed i.e. the transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) surgery, which is not open-heart surgery but involves a catheter that delivers the mechanical valve to the required site of the heart.
Procedure for aortic valve replacement
Two types of procedure are followed to make the replacement of aortic valve and these procedures are given below.
- Mechanical valves: Mechanical valves are used for the replacement of aortic valve and these types of valves are made up of carbon, plastic, metal etc. These valves are long-lasting, but there are chances of having a blood clot and to solve this problem, you will have to take blood-thinning medicine throughout your life.
- Biological valves: Biological valves are made up of animal tissue. These valves will have to be replaced again within ten years periodically, but there is no chance to clot formation of blood.
Preparing for surgery
It is essential to make sure that your health is in healthy condition for making the surgery. For this reason, you will have to make some medical tests, like blood and urine test, chest X-ray, Electrocardiogram, physical examination. You will not be allowed to smoke before two weeks of the surgery. You should not take any food or drink after midnight before the day of surgery.
An uncomfortable pressure, squeezing fullness, or pain in the centre of the chest, other symptoms include tightness, burning or heavy weight. The pain may spread to the shoulders, neck or arms, it may be located in the upper abdomen, back, or jaw, the pain may be of any intensity from mild to severe, shortness of breath, lightheadedness, fainting, anxiety or nervousness, sweating or cold, sweaty skin, nausea rapid or irregular heart beat, pale skin, feeling of impending doom. Aortic valve replacement cost in India is less than that in the European countries. Angina pectoris might result after the operation of the heart or an angioplasty, due to some internal failure or specially when the blood does not reach to the heart.
Risks of the surgery
There are several risks those can create many problems. These are listed below.
- Problems related to kidneys which can last for few numbers of days
- Problems with the functioning of the new valves
- Difficulties in heart rhythm
- High fever
- Short breath
- Chest pain and dizziness
- Oozing out of pus or fluid from the wound
- Pain, swelling, and redness in the area of a wound
- Developing of blood clots in the heart or on the newly replaced valve
- Damage to red blood cells that causes anemia
- Inflammation of the heart lining
- Narrowing the valve openings
- Obstruction for circulating blood to the heart that leads to the damage of blood tissue
An Alternative to an aortic valve replacement
When the open surgery for the replacement of the aortic valve is too risky, alternative procedures are followed. These procedures are Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI), Aortic valve balloon valvuloplasty and Sutureless aortic valve replacement.
These homograft valves are generally obtained from donors. Pulmonaryauto graft or Ross procedure is another way by which this operation is done on the human body. In this case, the aortic valve is replaced with the pulmonary valve of the patient. Pulmonary homograft then replaces the patient’s pulmonary valve.
You will get information about Aortic Valve Replacement in India by following the various medical websites online.